Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824) Obsolete

Oliveira, Aline Machado, Powell, Scott & Feitosa, Rodrigo Machado, 2021, A taxonomic study of the Brazilian turtle ants (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Cephalotes), Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 65 (3), No. e 20210028, pp. 1-52 : 42-43

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1590/1806-9665-RBENT-2021-0028

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5512343

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/038587E5-FFDD-FFEA-FFDF-FC29D197FA87

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Cephalotes pusillus
status

 

The pusillus species group

( Figs. 49 View Figure 49 , 50 View Figure 50 , 51)

The spinosus group by Kempf (1951) comprised the De Andrade and Baroni Urbani’s laminatus and pusillus groups, which share the followingcharacters:anterolateralpronotum angulate, separatefrom the pronotal expansions; propodeum with twopairs of spinesor denticles, with the posterior one longer thananterior; dorsal anddeclivous faces of propodeum differentiated, meeting in a distinct propodeal angle; gaster with distinct anterolateral lamellate borders.

Despite the shared characters,De Andradeand Baroni Urbani (1999) separated the former Kempf’sspinosus groupinlaminatus andpusillus groups. Thesynapomorphy forthepusillus group is the absence of fine reticulation on thecephalic ventralface and theabsenceof angulate hind femora. However, both characters are the same in the laminatus group, which includes the remaining species of Kempf’s spinosus group and C.duckei , that hadbeen consideredan isolated speciesby Kempf (1951). The synapomorphy for laminatus group, according to De Andrade and Baroni Urbani (1999), is the vertexal corners with a truncate lamella, butthis character is alsopresent in other groups, including thepusillus group. The characters used by Kempf (1951) tojoin the members of the pusillus and laminatus groups within the spinosus group seem more robust. Concordantly, the molecular phylogeny by Priceet al. (2016, see their Fig. S3 View Figure 3 ) recovered C. pusillus and C. columbicus within the laminatus group, rendering the laminatus group paraphyletic. Based on this molecular and morphological evidence, we here recognize the members of pusillus and laminatus groups as a unique group, under the name “ pusillus ”, since C. pusillus is the oldest species in the group ( Fig. 54 View Figure54 ).

Most species inthisgroup occurin Brazil,except for C.christopherseni , known so far only from Colombia, Venezuela, and Panama, and for C. columbicus , known from Colombia and Venezuela.

Diagnosis: In workers and soldiers, dorsal and declivous faces of propodeum differentiated, meeting in a distinct propodeal angle; propodeum with two pairs of spines, the posterior longer than the anterior ( Fig. 2f View Figure 2 ). Mid and hind basitarsi not flattened.

Brazilian species of pusillus group

Cephalotes duckei (Forel, 1906)

Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus duckei

Cephalotes inaequalis (Mann, 1916) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus inaequalis

Cephalotes laminatus (Smith, 1860) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus laminatus

Cephalotes minutus (Fabricius, 1804) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus minutus = Cephalotes cognatus (Smith, 1862) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus cognatus = Cephalotes exiguus (Smith, 1867) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus exiguus = Cephalotes quadrimaculatus (Klug, 1824) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus quadrimaculatus = Cephalotes volxemi (Emery, 1878) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus volxemi

Cephalotes pusillus (Klug, 1824) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus pusillus = Cephalotes caustica (Pohl & Kollar, 1832) Obsolete combination: Formica caustica = Cephalotes elongatus (Klug, 1824) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus elongatus = Cephalotes obtusus (Smith, 1858) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus obtusus = Cephalotes pusillus brevispinosa (Santschi, 1921) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus pusillus brevispinosa

Cephalotes simillimus (Kempf, 1951) Obsolete combination: Paracryptocerus simillimus

Cephalotes spinosus (Mayr, 1862) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus spinosus = Cephalotes laminatus peruvianus (Forel, 1911) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus laminatus peruvianus = Cephalotes punctatus (Mayr, 1862) Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus punctatus

Key to the identification of Brazilian species of the pusillus group of Cephalotes based on workers

( Figs. 49 View Figure 49 a-l)

1 In dorsal view, petiole subrectangular, a small denticle of the same color as petiole can be present ( Fig. 49g View Figure 49 )..................................... C. pusillus

1’ In dorsal view, petiole of another shape, with spines with translucent tips ( Fig. 49 View Figure 49 d-f, h-k)...............................................................................................2

2 Indorsalview,mesonotalspinesabsent ( Fig.49d View Figure 49 )......................... C. spinosus

2’ In dorsal view, mesonotal spines present ( Fig. 49c, e, h, i View Figure 49 ).................3

3 Inposterodorsalview,declivousfaceofthepropodeumwithwell-marked longitudinal striaeoccupying the entiresurface ( Fig. 49j View Figure 49 )........... C. minutus

3’ In posterodorsal view, declivous face of propodeum without longitudinal striae; if any, they are weakly marked and not occupying the entire surface ( Fig. 49k, l View Figure 49 ).............................................................................4

4 In dorsal view, posterior propodeal spines curved anteriorly ( Fig. 49e View Figure 49 )... .................................................................................................................................. C. duckei

4’ In dorsal view, posterior propodeal spines curved posteriorly ( Fig. 49c, d, h, i View Figure 49 )......................................................................................................5

5 In frontal view, the distance between the eyes is shorter or at most equal to the length of the head ( Fig. 49a View Figure 49 ).............................. C. simillimus

5’ Infrontal view, distance between eyes greater than head length ( Fig. 49b View Figure 49 )..................................................................................................................6

6 In dorsal view, propodeal groove weakly impressed; marked on the sides but absent medially ( Fig. 49h View Figure 49 ).......................................... C. laminatus

6’ In dorsal view, propodeal groove strongly impressed on the entire dorsum ( Fig. 49i View Figure 49 )............................................................................. C. inaequalis Key to the identification of Brazilian species of the pusillus group of Cephalotes based on soldiers

( Figs. 50 View Figure 50 a-i)

1 In dorsal view, petiole subrectangular, without spines; at most with a very tiny denticle ( Fig. 50a View Figure 50 )........................................................... C. pusillus

1’ In dorsal view, petiole of anothershape; if subrectangular, there are spines with translucent tips ( Fig. 50 View Figure 50 b-g)........................................................ 2

2 Margins of declivousface of propodeumwith laterallamellar expansions ( Fig. 50c, f, i View Figure 50 )............................................................................................................3

2’ Margins of declivous face of propodeum without lateral lamellar expansions ( Fig. 50b, d, e, g, h View Figure 50 )..........................................................................4

3 In dorsal view, posterior propodeal spines curved anteriorly ( Fig. 50c View Figure 50 )... .................................................................................................................................. C. duckei 3’ In dorsal view, posterior propodeal spines curved posteriorly ( Fig. 50f View Figure 50 )........................................................................................... C. simillimus

4 In dorsal view, gastral lamellae widthshorter than or equal to thewidth of the postpetiolar spines ( Fig. 50b View Figure 50 - yellow arrows)..................... C. minutus

4’ In dorsal view, gastral lamellae width is at least twice the width of the postpetiolar spines ( Fig. 50d, e, g View Figure 50 - yellow arrows)..............................5

5 In dorsal view, gastral lamellae glabrous ( Fig. 50e View Figure 50 )......... C. spinosus

5’ In dorsal view, gastral lamellae with hairs ( Fig. 50d, g View Figure 50 )........................6

6 Posterior propodeal spines bifurcated, spines black with yellowish tips ( Fig. 50d View Figure 50 ).................................................................................... C. inaequalis

6’ Posterior propodeal spines not bifurcated, spines completely black ( Fig. 50g View Figure 50 ).................................................................................................... C. laminatus

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Cephalotes