Cephalotes pallens (Klug, 1824)

Oliveira, Aline Machado, Powell, Scott & Feitosa, Rodrigo Machado, 2021, A taxonomic study of the Brazilian turtle ants (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Cephalotes), Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 65 (3), No. e 20210028, pp. 1-52 : 33-35

publication ID

https://doi.org/ 10.1590/1806-9665-RBENT-2021-0028

DOI

https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5512321

persistent identifier

https://treatment.plazi.org/id/038587E5-FFD4-FFE2-FCB3-F8F0D196FE39

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Cephalotes pallens
status

 

The pallens species group

( Figs. 37 View Figure 37 , 38, 39)

The pallens group was proposed by De Andrade and Baroni Urbani (1999) with 10 species.It includesC.jamaicensis, C.pallens , C.patellaris ,

C. porrasi , C. variansand thenew species describedby De AndradeinDe Andradeand Baroni Urbani (1999) ( C.decolor , C.decoloratus , C.pallidoides , C. pallidus , and C. pellans ). Of these species, only five occur in Brazil – C. pallens , C. pallidoides , C. pallidus , C. patellaris , andC. pellans .

This is the mostmorphologically homogeneous group of Cephalotes . Therefore, isthe most challenging group regarding species delimitation, especially if the workers are theonly casteavailable. Inthe identification key for workers, De Andrade and Baroni Urbani (1999) provideda note about this difficulty and recommended verification of the soldier’s identification key before applying a name.

In addition to the characters employed by De Andrade and Baroni Urbani (1999), here we provide an illustrated identification key for workers based on characters as the shape of frontal carinae in relation to eyes, and sculpture patterns on pleura. Regarding the identification key for soldiers, the most informative characters are the sculpture and pilosity patterns.

The pallens group is sister to the clade formed by the grandinosus and pinelii groups ( Fig. 54 View Figure54 ), with all of these groups sharing a worker body shape that is strongly flattened dorsoventrally.

Diagnosis: In worker, body strongly flatteneddorsoventrally. Body colorreddish brown.In frontal view, vertexalcorner extending laterally overhangingtheeye ( Fig. 2d View Figure 2 ). In soldier, infrontalview, cephalicdorsum completelycovering the mandibles to form a “dish” head type ( Fig. 38 View Figure 38 ).

Brazilian species of pallens group

Cephalotes pallens (Klug, 1824)

Obsolete combinations: Cryptocerus pallens , Zacryptocerus pallens

= Cephalotes araneolus (Smith, 1853)

Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus araneolus

= Cephalotes discocephalus Smith, 1853

Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus discocephalus Cephalotes pallidoides De Andrade, 1999

Cephalotes pallidus De Andrade, 1999

Cephalotes patellaris (Mayr, 1866)

Obsolete combination: Cryptocerus patellaris Cephalotes pellans De Andrade, 1999

Key to the identification of Brazilian species of the pallens group of Cephalotes based on workers

( Figs. 37 View Figure 37 a-i)

1 In dorsal view, lamellarexpansions of thepropodeum witha symmetrical posterior notch on both sides; an additional notch may be present anteriorly, but in this case, it is alwayssymmetrical. The notch is never present onone sideonlyorare asymmetrical ( Fig. 37g View Figure 37 )................... C. pallens

1’ Indorsal view,lamellar expansionsof propodeum withoutnotches.If any, theyare asymmetric, probably causedbybreaking ( Fig.37h View Figure 37 ).......................2

2 In lateral view, frontal carinae narrow, ending over the eyes, so that the posterior portion of the eyes is confluent with the dorsal face of thehead ( Fig. 37a View Figure 37 )..................................................................................................3

2’ In lateral view, frontal carinae broad, extending beyond eyes length, separating eyes from dorsal face of head ( Fig. 37b, c View Figure 37 )................................4

3 Lateral surface of the mesosoma rugose ( Fig. 37f View Figure 37 ).............. C. pellans

3’ Lateral surface of the mesosoma microalveolate; some incomplete rugosities maybepresent ( Fig. 37i View Figure 37 )................................................... C. pallidoides

4 In ventral view, headrugose ( Fig.37d View Figure 37 ).............................................. C. patellaris

4’ In ventral view, head totally microalveolate, without rugosities ( Fig.37e View Figure 37 ).......................................................................................................... C. pallidus

Key to the identification of Brazilian species of the pallens group of Cephalotes based on soldiers

( Figs. 38 View Figure 38 a-i)

1 Cephalic dish irregularlyareolate-rugose ( Fig.38a View Figure 38 )......................... C. pallidus

1’ Cephalicdishregularlyalveolate ( Fig.38b View Figure 38 ) orfoveate ( Fig.38c View Figure 38 )...........................2

2 Cephalicdishwitherecttosuberecthairs( Fig.38d,g View Figure 38 )...................................................3

2’ Cephalicdishwithsubdecumbenttoappressedhairs ( Fig.38e, f View Figure 38 ).......................4

3 Cephalic dish with amedianprotuberance ( Fig.38d View Figure 38 )................... C. patellaris

3’ Cephalic dishflat or witha weak medianprotuberance ( Fig. 38g View Figure 38 ).......... .................................................................................................................. C. pallidoides

4 Cephalicdish without a median protuberance ( Fig. 38e View Figure 38 ). Translucent edges of the cephalic disc internally with long hairs larger than the diameter of the foveae ( Fig. 38e View Figure 38 ). Declivous face of propodeum always rugose ( Fig. 38h View Figure 38 )...................................................................................... C. pellans

4’ Cephalic dish with a median protuberance, weakly developed ( Fig. 38f View Figure 38 ). Translucent edges of the cephalic disc internally with short hairs smaller than the diameter of the foveae ( Fig. 38f View Figure 38 ). Declivous face of propodeum predominantlymicroalveolate, some tiny rugosities can be present ( Fig. 38i View Figure 38 )............................................................................... C.pallens

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Hymenoptera

Family

Formicidae

Genus

Cephalotes