Cephalotes mariadeandrade, Oliveira & Powell & Feitosa, 2021

Oliveira, Aline Machado, Powell, Scott & Feitosa, Rodrigo Machado, 2021, A taxonomic study of the Brazilian turtle ants (Formicidae: Myrmicinae: Cephalotes), Revista Brasileira de Entomologia 65 (3), No. e 20210028, pp. 1-52 : 37-39

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https://doi.org/ 10.1590/1806-9665-RBENT-2021-0028



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Cephalotes mariadeandrade


Cephalotes mariadeandrade newspecies

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:76BDEF90-0721-48AA-A898-1F9A92280852 ( Figs. 42 View Figure 42 a-c, 43a-c, 44a-c, 45a-c, 48)

Holotype: BRAZIL,MG, Uberlândia , -19.033630 -48.318400, 860m, 03.viii.2016. S. Powell et al. col. /C16-64, DZUP 550137 (worker) [ DZUP GoogleMaps ].

Paratypes: samedataas holotype: DZUP 550138 (1 worker, 1 soldier, 1 male), DZUP 550139 (1 worker, 1 soldier, 1 gyne), DZUP 550140 (1 worker, 1 male), DZUP 550141 (1 worker, 1 soldier, 1 gyne), DZUP 550142 (1 worker, 2 soldiers) [ DZUP], DZUP 550145 (1 worker, 1 soldier, 1 gyne), DZUP 550146 (1 worker, 1 soldier, 1 male) [ MZSP], DZUP 550147 (1 worker, 1 soldier) [ MPEG], DZUP 550143 (1 worker, 1 male), DZUP 550144 (1 worker, 1 soldier, 1 gyne) [ USNM].

Diagnosis: Amember of pinelii speciesgroup. Workerswith lateral lamellar extensions of the propodeum on the declivous face but not on the dorsal face ( Fig. 42c View Figure 42 ). Soldier with cephalic disc covered with many tubercular elevations ( Fig. 43 View Figure 43 a-c).

Worker measurements (N=11): HL 0.78-0.84; HW 0.89-0.99; EL 0.25-0.28; PW 0.70-0.78; WL 0.84-0.89; PTL 0.13-0.19; PTW 0.48-0.53; PPL 0.14-0.19; PPW 0.51-0.62; GL 0.94-1.08; HBL 0.35-0.38; HBW 0.09; TL 2.89-3.16; CI 110-123; OI 26.3-29.9; PI 25.0-37.5; HBI 23.3-25.0.

Worker description: Body dark brown; frontal lobes and lamellar expansions of pronotum, propodeum, petiole, postpetioleand gaster yellowish to translucent. Gaster darker than the rest of body ( Fig. 42 View Figure 42 ).

Mandibles rugose-microalveolate. Dorsum of head and mesosoma foveate, space between foveae smooth; ventral face of head areolatemicroalveolate. Legs andgaster microalveolate.

Body with appressed canaliculate hairs, more abundant on dorsum of pronotum ( Fig. 42c View Figure 42 ). Mandibles and anterior margin of clypeus with suberect clavate hairs. Declivous face of propodeum glabrous. Petiole and postpetiolewith hairs forming a transverse dorsal strip; anterior and posterior portions glabrous ( Fig.42c View Figure 42 ). Gaster with sparse short appressed simple hairs, anterior lamellar expansions glabrous ( Fig. 42c View Figure 42 ).

Headslightlywiderthanlong(CI110-123),dorsumveryconvexmedially, with two longitudinal elevations posteriorly, and depressions in front of eyes.Mandibles witha weaklydeveloped lateral angle.Anterior margin of clypeusconcavewithoutdenticles.Frontal carinaestraitanteriorlyof eyes; pointedupwardsovereyes ( Fig.42c View Figure 42 ).Antennaewithatwo-segmentedclub. Lateroventralmarginsofheadwithposteriorcarinaeextending beyondthe eyesuntilvertexalcorners.Vertexalcornerswithanarrowlamellarexpansion.

Mesosomaalmostflatinlateralview,withagentlyascendantpronotum ( Fig.42b View Figure 42 ). Indorsalview, lateralmarginsofpronotum withconcavelamellar expansions, broader anteriorly; promesonotalgroove absent, instead of it is an elevation on dorsum of pronotum ( Fig.42c View Figure 42 ). Mesonotum with a pair of short denticles pointed upwards. Propodeal groove deeply impressed. Dorsal and declivous faces of propodeum well differentiated, meeting in a distinct propodeal angle; lateral margins of the dorsum of propodeum withoutlamellarexpansions,declivousfacewithlaterallamellarexpansions pointed upwards ( Fig. 42c View Figure 42 ). Femora not angulated dorsally, mid and hind basitarsi notflattened, with subparallel dorsal and ventral faces.

Indorsalview, petiolecompressedanteroposteriorly, anteriormargin withadiscretemedianconcavity,withlaterallamellarexpansionsbroader posteriorly, dorsally with pair of obtuse denticles, subpetiolar process broaderandroundedanteriorly ( Fig.42b View Figure 42 ).Postpetiolenarrowerthanpetiole ( Fig. 42b View Figure 42 ), with lateral lamellar expansions, dorsum of postpetiole with a transverse elevation ( Fig. 42c View Figure 42 ), subpostpetiolar process pronounced and compressed anteroposteriorly ( Fig. 42b View Figure 42 ).

Gaster suboval, deeply concave anteromedially, with broad anterior lamellar expansions, not extending posteriorly in a carina ( Fig. 42c View Figure 42 ).

Soldiermeasurements (N=9): HL 0.91-1.00; HW 1.09-1.19; EL 0.25-0.28; PW 0.94-1.13; WL 0.97-1.13; PTL 0.15-0.19; PTW 0.50-0.56; PPL 0.18-0.21; PPW 0.54-0.64; GL 1.04-1.19; HBL 0.32-0.38; HBW 0.10- 0.11; TL 3.27-3.65; CI 118-122; OI 21.2-24.4; PI 29.5-36.4; HBI 26.7-33.7.

Soldier description: Body dark brown; frontal lobes and lamellar expansions of pronotum, propodeum, petiole, postpetiole and gaster yellowish to translucent. Gaster dark brown with an anterior and a posterior pair of small yellowish spots ( Fig. 43 View Figure 43 ).

Mandiblesalveolate. Ventralfaceofhead areolate-microalveolate; dorsum of head with many tubercular elevations, space between tubercles scabrous ( Fig. 43a View Figure 43 ); frontal lobes weakly rugose. Pronotum scabrous ( Fig. 43c View Figure 43 ). Meso- and metanotum, meso- and metapleura foveate-microalveolate. Petiole and postpetiole with shallow foveae. Legs, and gaster as in the workers ( Fig. 43c View Figure 43 ).

Pilosity as in the workers, except by anterior portion of head with erect clavate hairs, dorsum of head with canaliculate hairson tubercles, and dorsum of pronotum with sparse canaliculate hairs.

Head slightly wider than longer (CI 118-122). Mandibles with a strong longitudinal lateral angle. Clypeus without denticles ( Fig. 43a View Figure 43 ). Dorsum of head disc shaped and convex, strongly tuberculate with a posteriorly pair of distinct larger tubercle ( Fig. 43a, b View Figure 43 ). Frontal carinae crenulate laterally. Antennaewithatwo-segmented club. Roof of antennal scrobes with alateral crenulate carinae.Lateroventral margins of headwith a posteriorcarinae extending beyondthe eyes until vertexal corners. Vertexal corners forming a pair of broad projections pointed upwards ( Fig. 43b, c View Figure 43 ).

In lateral view, pronotum ascending, pronotal carina well marked and crenulate, mediallyinterrupted ( Fig. 43c View Figure 43 ). Indorsal view, anterior marginof pronotum gentlyrounded, lateral margins pointed anteriorly. Mesonotumandpropodeumdiscontinuousandflat ( Fig. 43b View Figure 43 ). Mesonotum, propodeum, legs, petiole, postpetioleand gaster as in workers; except by the narrow lamellar expansions on the declivous face of propodeum ( Fig. 43c View Figure 43 ).

Gyne measurements (N=4): HL 1.13-1.18; HW 1.22-1.27; EL 0.30- 0.31; PW 1.27-1.34; WL 1.63-1.88; PTL 0.25-0.32; PTW 0.50-0.51; PPL 0.30-0.32; PPW 0.70-0.72; GL 1.80-1.88; HBL 0.44-0.50; HBW 0.13-0.15; TL 5.18-5.49; CI 106-110; OI 23.4-25.2; PI 50-63.4; HBI 27.5-33.3.

Gyne description: Bodyblack; frontal lobes anteriorly translucent; dorsum of head, pronotum and legs brownish toyellowish. Firstgastral tergite with an anterior and a posterior pair of whitish spots, each one occupying lessthan one third of the firsttergite length; posteriormargins of eachtergite and sternite yellowish ( Fig.44 View Figure 44 ).

Sculpturing of mandibles, dorsal and ventral face of head, pronotum, legs, and gaster as in the soldier. Dorsum of mesonotum, mesopleuron, upper metapleura foveate-microalveolate, lower metapleura rugosemicroalveolate ( Fig.44b View Figure 44 ). Propodeumfoveate.Petioleandpostpetiolewith shallowfoveae ( Fig.44c View Figure 44 ).

Pilosity as in the soldier, but hairsmore abundant on propodeum.

Headasinthesoldier (CI106-110).Thetwoposteriorocellipositioned in the posterior tubercular elevations ( Fig.44a View Figure 44 ).

Indorsalview,anteriormarginofpronotumslightlyrounded,narrower thaninthesoldiers,lateralmarginswithapairofdenticlespointedforwards, pronotalcarinaweaklydeveloped,crenulate,mediallyinterrupted ( Fig.44c View Figure 44 ). Dorsally,mesoscutumsubtriangular,anteriormarginrounded;notauli absent; parapsidiallinesfeeblyvisibleandparallel;transscutallineimpressed,reaching the lateral margins of mesosoma; scutoscutellargroove deeply impressed, arched, and scrobiculate; scutellumwell delimited and broader anteriorly; axillaeroundedposteriorly( Fig.44c View Figure 44 ).Laterally,mesopleuralgroovedividing anepisternumandkatepisternum;metapleuradividedinuppermetapleura andlowermetapleurabyagroove;metapleuropropodealgrooveimpressed ( Fig.44b View Figure 44 ).Indorsalview,posteriormarginofpropodeumconcavewithapair ofshort,bluntdenticles( Fig.44c View Figure 44 ).Wingvenationasinthegenusdescription.

Indorsalview,petiolesubrectangular, lateralmarginsstraight,without lamellar expansions and without dorsal projections, subpetiolar process narrow ( Fig.44c View Figure 44 ).Postpetiolelongerthan petiole,withapairoflateralbroad opaqueprojections( Fig.44c View Figure 44 ),withoutprojectionondorsum,subpostpetiolar process pronounced and compressed anteroposteriorly.

Gaster protruding anteriorly ( Fig. 44c View Figure 44 ).

Malemeasurements (N=4):HL0.58-0.60; HW0.78-0.81; EL0.30-0.31; PW0.80-0.84; WL 1.24-1.28;PTL 0.21-0.25;PTW 0.31-0.34; PPL 0.20-0.22; PPW0.33-0.39;GL 0.75-0.81;HBL 0.38-0.44;HBW 0.06-0.08;TL 3.03-3.13; CI 130-138; OI 36.9-40.1; PI 66.7-74.8; HBI 15.6-18.2.

Male description: Body brownish to black; femora brownish to yellowish, tibiae and tarsi yellowish ( Fig. 45 View Figure45 ).

Mandibles, headanddorsumof mesosomamicroalveolatewithsparse shallowfoveae.Propleuraandmesopleuronweaklystriate;metapleuraand propodeum rugose. Legs, petiole, postpetioleandgaster microalveolate.

Body with long and flexuous hairs, more abundant on mandibles, dorsum of head and mesosoma. Legs with long hairs only in the internal face of coxae andfemur.Hairs shorter on gaster ( Fig. 45b View Figure45 ).

Head wider than longer (CI 130-138), broader posteriorly. Mandibles with one apical tooth, lateral angle weakly developed to absent. Clypeus with a median elevation, posterior margin rounded. Frontal carinae not extendingposteriorly.The central portion of head strongly elevated. Eyes occupying more than half of head length ( Fig. 45a View Figure45 ). Ocelli positioned at a central elevation. Antenna as the genusdescription.

Indorsalview,anteriormarginof pronotumstronglyrounded ( Fig.45c View Figure45 ). Mesoscutumsubtriangular;notaulipresent;parapsidiallinesfeeblyvisibleand parallel;transscutallinereachinglateralmarginsof mesosoma;scutoscutellar groovedeeplyimpressed,arched,andscrobiculate;scutellumwelldelimitedand broaderanteriorly;axillaeroundedposteriorly( Fig.45c View Figure45 ).Laterally,mesopleural groove dividing anepisternum and katepisternum; metapleura divided in uppermetapleuraandlowermetapleurabyagroove;metapleuropropodeal groove inconspicuous ( Fig. 45b View Figure45 ). Dorsal face of propodeum concave, with rounded lateralangles.Wings asin genusdescription.

Indorsalview,petioleandpostpetioleconcaveanteriorly, withlateral acute projections near to the anterior margin, without dorsal projections, subpetiolar andsubpostpetiolar processweakly developed ( Fig. 45c View Figure45 ).

First tergiteofgasterasbroadasmesosoma,occupyinghalforlessthan the totallength of gaster ( Fig. 45b View Figure45 ), without anterior projection ( Fig. 45c View Figure45 ).

Comments: This species differs from others in pineliigroup by the presence of two longitudinal elevations on the posterior portion of head dorsum,lackoflaterallamellarexpansionsondorsumofpropodeumdeclivous face, and body robust, not strongly flattened dorsoventrally. Cephalotes mariadeadrade is the species C. sp. 2 in the molecular phylogenies by Priceetal.(2014, 2016), recoveredatthebaseoftheparaphyleticgrouping formed by the grandinosus and pinelii groups ( Fig.54 View Figure54 ).

Naturalhistory: AcompletecolonyofC. mariadeandrade specieswas collected in Uberlândia (Minas Gerais) in a region of Neotropical savanna (biome Cerrado). The colony occupied four individual nests on the same treeoccupiedbyanaggressivespeciesofCrematogaster of similarsizeand dark brown color. Workers of C. mariadeandrade were observed running inthewell-establishedforagingtrails of theCrematogaster species, which couldindicateaparasiticrelationbetweenthesespecies,likethatdescribed to CephalotesspecularisandCrematogasterampla Forel, 1912.Inthatcase, C. specularis mimics the behavior and posture of their host C. ampla, so they can use the foraging networks and exploit food resources of their hyperaggressivehost withoutbeingnotice (Powell etal.,2014). Cephalotes mariadeandrade workers also moved like the Crematogaster workers whose trails they integrated with and they were similarly undetected by the Crematogaster foragers.

Distribution: Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Etymology: Thespecific epithet, inapposition, isinhonorof Maria de Andrade,a Braziliantaxonomist,who dedicatedyearsof workconducting themostcomprehensivestudyof thegenusCephalotes todate.Thisseminal contribution provided the basisfor the development of the present study and the foundation upon which all current Cephalotes research is based.


Brazil, Parana, Curitiba, Universidade Federal do Parana, Museu de Entomologia Pe. Jesus Santiago Moure


Brazil, Sao Paulo, Sao Paulo, Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo


Brazil, Para, Belem, Museu Paraense Emilio Goeldi


USA, Washington D.C., National Museum of Natural History, [formerly, United States National Museum]