Syneches rafaeli Ale-Rocha & Vieira, Ale-Rocha & Vieira

Soares, Matheus M. M., Freitas-Silva, Rafael A. P. & Ale-Rocha, Rosaly, 2021, Review of Brazilian species of Syneches Walker (Diptera, Hybotidae, Hybotinae), with description of ten new species, Zootaxa 5049 (1), pp. 1-84: 55-58

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.5049.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:F9647501-7F6B-4286-AEEE-19B620F697ED

DOI

http://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.5593117

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/0384CB1B-A444-C965-9689-2947FD23F9DD

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Syneches rafaeli Ale-Rocha & Vieira
status

 

Syneches rafaeli Ale-Rocha & Vieira  

( Figs 37A–E View FIGURE 37 , 56 View FIGURE 56 )

Syneches rafaeli Ale-Rocha & Vieira, 2008: 119   , figs 22–28, 39; Menezes & Ale-Rocha, 2016: 427 View Cited Treatment , fig. 122 (key, distr.); Ale-Rocha, 2016: 204 ( Ecuador); Soares & Ale-Rocha, 2018: 640, figs 13, 18 (NE Brazil). Type locality: Parque Nacional do Jaú, Amazonas, Brazil.

Diagnosis. Medium size (3.4 mm) ( Fig. 37A View FIGURE 37 ). Antenna brown, but postpedicel entirely yellow or brown with yellow base ( Fig. 38C View FIGURE 38 ); palpus yellow. Prosternum fused to proepisternum; scutum rounded, as broad as mesopleuron, covered with reddish brown pruinescence, except dc stripe and prescutellar disc with gray pruinescence ( Fig. 37B View FIGURE 37 ). Hind femur slightly swollen ( Fig. 37D View FIGURE 37 ); fore femur dark yellow to brown, coxae, trochanters, apex of hind femur, hind tibia usually with ring at mid-length and all tarsomeres 5 brown, otherwise yellow ( Figs 37A, D View FIGURE 37 ). Wing sub-hyaline, pale brown; pterostigma short, rectangular, brown, located distal to apex of R 1; second section of M 1 2 x longer than crossvein r-m ( Fig. 37E View FIGURE 37 ).

Type examined material. HOLOTYPE ♂ ( INPA) labelled: “ BRASIL, Amazonas , Pq [ Parque ] N [ Nacional do] Jaú , Rio Jaú, Igarapé Patauá, 01°53′16″S - 61°44′07″W, 23–28.vii.1995, varredura, J.A. Rafael & J.F. Vidal ” [red label] GoogleMaps   . Holotype condition: good; not dissected.  

Additional examined material. BRAZIL. Pará : Belém, Para, IPEAN, 23.iii.1970, J.M. & B.A. Campbell (2 ♀, CNC). Maranhão: Carolina, PARNA Chapada das Mesas, Riacho Cancela , 225 m, 07°06′44.2″S 47°17′56.8″W, Armadilha de Malaise , 11–14.vi.2013, J.A. Rafael, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira, J.T. Câmara & A.A. Santos (5 ♂, 5 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 1–15.vii.2013, J.A. Rafael, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira & T.T.A. Silva cols. (2 ♂, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 15– 31.vii.2013 (1 ♂, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 1–10.viii.2013 (3 ♂, 2 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 1–10.ix.2013 (2 ♂, 1 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 1–. x.2013 (1 ♂, 2 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 20–31.xii.2013 (1 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, Suspensa Lâmina d’água, 20–31.vii.2014, J.A. Rafael, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira, T.L. Rocha & G.A. Reis, cols. (2 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 1–10.viii.2014 (1 ♂, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, Riacho Sucuruiu, 240 m, 07°07′05.6″S 47°18′31.6″W, Armadilha de Malaise , 14–30.vi.2013 (2 ♂, 1 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 1–10.viii.2013 (1 ♂, 6 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 10–20.xii.2013 (1♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, Suspensa simples (5 m), 1–10.v.2014 (1 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, Armadilha malaise, 20-30.vi.2014 (1♂, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 1–10.viii.2014 (1 ♂, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; 10–20.viii.2014 (3 ♂, 1 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, Riacho Corrente, 288 m, 07°04′24.2″S 47°05′25.2″W, Suspensa simples (15 m), 20–30.iv.2014 (1 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 10–20.vi.2014 (1 ♂, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; Carolina, Perímetro Urbano, 07°19′40″S 47°27′14.5″W, Armadilha luminosa, 25–26.xii.2013, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira, T.T.A. Silva & T. L. Rocha cols. (2 ♂, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, Rio Lages , 12.xii.2001, J.A. Rafael, F.L. Oliveira & J.A. Vidal, Arm. Malaise (1 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; Mirador, Parque Est. Mirador, Base da Geraldina , 411 m, 06°37′06″S 45°51′51″W, Armadilha de Malaise , 02–12.viii.2013, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira, L.L.M. Santos & L.S. Santos (4 ♂, 2 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 01–15.ix.2013 (1 ♂, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 15–30.ix.2013 (1 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, Base do Mosquito, Armadilha Luminosa , 04–08.ii.2011, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira (5 ♂, 1 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; C.N. Maranhão, REBIO– Res. Biol. Gurupi, 03°14′05″S 46°41′83″W, Arm. Luminosa , 07–15.i.2011, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira, M.M. Abreu & E.A.S. Barbosa (4 ♂, CZMA)   ; idem, 03–07.v.2011 (1 ♂, CZMA)   ; idem, Armadilha de Malaise , 01-06.iii.2011 (1 ♂, CZMA)   ; idem, 05–15.vi.2010 (1 ♂, CZMA)   ; Caxias, Inhamum , 04°54′39″S 43°25′16″W, 535 m, 17.v.2007, J.A. Rafael, F.F. Xavier F. & F.L. Oliveira, Luz (2 ♂, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 19.v.2007 (1 ♂, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; idem, 05–07.vi.2009, J.A. Silva & F. Limeira-de-Oliveira (1 ♀, CZMA) GoogleMaps   ; Riachão, Fazenda Altos, Armadilha Suspensa , 18–22.viii.2009, F. Limeira-de-Oliveira & M.B. Aguiar Neto (2 ♂, CZMA)   . Bahia: Mata de São João, Reserva de Sapiranga , 22–25.vii.2001, Malaise, Trilha 6, M. Tavares & eq. col. (1 ♂, UFES)   . Minas Gerais: Ouro Preto, São Bartolomeu , Sítio Vale das Borboletas, 20°17′35.85″S 43°34′04.6″W, 10–17.iii.2013, Malaise, Rio, P. Dias, R.C.C. Arautez (1 ♂, UFMG) GoogleMaps   ; Nova Lima (mata), 19°58′7.4″S 43°51′22.7″W, 12–26.iv.2015, Arm. Malaise, A.R. Lima col. (1 ♀, UFMG) GoogleMaps   . COLOMBIA. Caqueta: San José del Fragua, Vereda Bellavista, Finca Mi Ranchito , 1°18′23″ 76°00′33″, 265 m 1–15.ii.2017, Y. Ramos-Pastrana, Malaise, Bosque-dos sel, Sao José C 8 (1 ♂, INPA)   ; idem, Bosque-suelo (1 ♂, INPA)   .

Distribution. Brazil (Amapá, Amazonas, Bahia *, Ceará, Pará, Piauí, Maranhão, Minas Gerais *, Rondônia) ( Fig. 56 View FIGURE 56 ); Colombia *, Ecuador, French Guiana, Peru and Venezuela. Syneches rafaeli   is widely distributed in northern South America, recorded in the Amazon, Atlantic Forest, Caatinga and Cerrado biomes.

Variation. Postpedicel yellow only on basal third and remaining brown, differing from the holotype, which is fully yellow. The color of fore femur may vary from dark yellow to brown and the brown ring at mid-length of the hind tibia may be absent. The pterostigma may be narrow, limited to a stripe posterior to the apex of R 1.

Remarks. Syneches rafaeli   differs from all the other Brazilian species of Syneches   by the medium size with wide prosternum, hind femur only slightly swollen, yellow with brown apex and pterostigma short, rectangular, located distal to the apex of R 1. A male and female of this species were photographed in the State of Pará ( Figs 1B, C View FIGURE 1 ), attracted by the light of a camp. In addition, several of the analyzed specimens were collected using light traps, demonstrating that both sexes are attracted to light.

UFES

Brazil, Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo, Departamento de Biologia, Colecao Entomologica

INPA

Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia

CNC

Canadian National Collection of Insects, Arachnids, and Nematodes

UFES

Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo

UFMG

Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Hybotidae

Genus

Syneches

Loc

Syneches rafaeli Ale-Rocha & Vieira

Soares, Matheus M. M., Freitas-Silva, Rafael A. P. & Ale-Rocha, Rosaly 2021
2021
Loc

Syneches rafaeli

Soares, M. M. M. & Ale-Rocha, R. 2018: 640
Menezes, I. S. & Ale-Rocha, R. 2016: 427
Ale-Rocha, R. & Vieira, R. M. 2008: 119
2008