Pachylophus femoratus ( Johnson, 1898 )

Deeming, John C., 2018, A revision of the Afrotropical species of Pachylophus Loew (Diptera: Chloropidae) and some related Ovoviviparous genera, Zootaxa 4482 (1), pp. 1-51: 8-10

publication ID

https://doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4482.1.1

publication LSID

lsid:zoobank.org:pub:79FECD6E-5192-45C3-9B46-4E6817366F64

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/038487A7-7A5B-FFE4-FF1C-B3D1EAA31160

treatment provided by

Plazi

scientific name

Pachylophus femoratus ( Johnson, 1898 )
status

 

Pachylophus femoratus ( Johnson, 1898) 

( Plate 4View PLATE 4, Fig. 19; plate 5, Fig. 22; plate 12, Figs 58, 59)

Elachiptera femorata Johnson, 1898: 164 

Pachylophus tellinii Bezzi, 1908: 177  , syn. n.

Pachylophus frontellinus Speiser, 1910: 196 

Pachylophus cymbiformis Becker, 1916: 426 

Described as a species of Elachiptera  from Somalia, this species is further recorded from Rhodesia, South Africa, Tanzania and Uganda. P. frontellinus Speiser, 1910: 196  and P. cymbiformis Becker, 1916: 426  are junior synonyms. In NHMUKAbout NHMUK are 2♂ (one of them headless) labelled "Durban, F. Muir" determined by C.G. Lamb as P. frontellinus  . Misidentifications are listed under P. frontalis  (below). Dr. Ebejer informs me that he has run the type of P. cymbiformis  through the above key and that it traces perfectly to femoratus  . Through the kindness of Mrs. Sarah Whitman of the Museo Zoologico de "La Specola", Museo di Storia Naturale, Firenze I have been able to examine the unique holotype of Pachylophus tellinii Bezzi, 1908  from Eritrea. This is in good condition, though the tips of the wings are damaged. It bears the following labels: (1) male sex sign (2) red " Typus " label, (3) ERITREA: ADI-UCRI, vii.1901, Dr. A. Andreini, (4) what appears to be "1109" on a diamond-shaped label, (5) " Pachylophus Tellinii  n. sp." handwritten. It is without doubt conspecific with Pachylophus femoratus (Johnson)  .

Material : 5♂ 4♀, with individual puparia N. NIGERIA: Zaria, Samaru, em. ix–xi.1972 ex shoots Sporobolus pyramidalis, J.C. Deeming    ; 1♀, Samaru , 16.xii.1979, J.C. Deeming  ; 1♀, same data but 12.xi.1969  ; 1♀, same data but 23.viii.1968, m. v. trap    ; 1♀, same data but 9.iii.1969  ; 1♀, same data but 18.vi.1968  ; 1♂, same data but 10.vii.1967  ; 1♂, Funtua, Maska Fish Farm, 15.xi.1970, J.C. Deeming; 10♂ 14♀, Mambilla Plateau, Ngel Nyaki , forest edge, 1600–1700m, 27–29.xii.1989, D.P. Knoop  ; 1♀, GHANA: Legon , i.1989, M. Cobblah  ; 1♂, Western Province, Elmina  , 4–8.xi.1995, M.R. Wilson (all in NMWCAbout NMWC)  ; 1♂ 2♀, CAMEROUN: Monts Bamboutos, Djuttitra, 1800–2000 m., vii.1939, Fini leg. ( MNHNAbout MNHN)  ; 1♂, ETHIOPIA: Between Weldiya and Lalibela, 11°57'N 39°25'E, 3326m., 18.iii.1995, M. von Tschirnhaus (X1021) ( ZSMAbout ZSM)GoogleMaps  ; 31♂ 57♀, Shewa Distr., River Awash Wenz S. of Nazret , 15.iii.1995, M. v. Tschirnhaus, (X1015), ( ZSMAbout ZSM)  ; 1♀, Shewa Prov., 2km NNW Muke T'uri, stream, 30.iii.1995, (X1036), M.v. Tschirnhaus, ( ZSMAbout ZSM)  ; 1♂ 1♀, Gonder Prov., Blue Nile at T'is Isat Fwafwate waterfall, 28.iii.1995, (X1032), M. v. Tschirnhaus, ( ZSMAbout ZSM)  ; 2♂ 1♀, cultivated country near Addis Allem , c. 8000 ft., 18–19.ix.1926, H. Scott  ; 2♂18♀, Between Addis Allem and Djem-Djem, 7–8000 ft., 20.ix.1926, J. Omer Cooper; 1♂, Djem-Djem Forest , 8000–9000 ft., 21–29.ix.1926, H. Scott  ; 1♂ 4♀, Addis Abeba, 10.x.1926, J. Omer Cooper  ; 3♂ 9♀, Mulu, above Muger Valley , c. 8000 ft., 18-23.xii.1926, H. Scott (all in NHMUKAbout NHMUK); long series of both sexes KENYA: Kasarani, 10–11.viii.1989, J.W. Ismay  ; 1♀, Rift Valley, Ol Arabe Gorge , 11.xi.1988, R.K. Butlin  ; 1♂, same data but 18.xi.1988  ; 1♀, Cherangani Hills, Kapcherop, 2.xi.1983, I. Yarom; 1♀, Masai Mara, Keekorok Lodge , 29– 30.viii.1983  , A. Freidberg (all in NMWCAbout NMWC); 1♂, Mt  . Kenya, Timberless Gap , 9500 ft., 29.vii.1949, J. A. Riley  ; 8♂ 9♀, Nairobi , 9–13.xii.1970  , A.E. Stubbs (1♀ bearing P. frontellinus  det. label in handwriting of J.W. Ismay)  ; 10♂ 8♀, same data but 7.i.1971  ; 1♂, N. of Nairobi, Limuru, 14.xii.1970, A. E. Stubbs; 4♂ 2♀, Nairobi, Karura Forest , 9–13.xii.1970, A.E. Stubbs  ; 3♀, Nairobi, Kabete, 6000 ft., 7.xii.1971, C.F. Huggins; 1♂ 2♀, 14–16 kms. S. of Nakuru, 15–16.xii.1970  , A.E. Stubbs  ; 1♀, Lake Nakuru, 15–16.xii.1970  , A.E. Stubbs; 1♀  , Nyeri, iii–iv.1948, M. Steele (all in NHMUKAbout NHMUK)  ; 2♀, (1 with Laboulbeniales  on abdomen) West face of Mt. Kenya, E. of Naro Moru , 12.iii.1970, (X328)  ; 2♂ 3♀, 15km NNE of Nanyuki, Kamwaki Farm , 0°08'N 37°10'E, 9.iii.1970, (X345)GoogleMaps  ; 8♂ 15♀, (1♂ 1♀ with Laboulbeniales  on tip of abdomen) same locality, 29.iii.1970, (X347)GoogleMaps  ; 8♂ 15♀, 15km NNE of Nanyuki, Kamwaki Farm , 29.iii.1970, (X345)  ; 2♀, 7.5km WNW of Ol Kalou , mountain-top, 25.iii.1970, (X342)  ; 1♂, Chyulu Range , 1800m, 18.ii.1971, (X348); all M. v. Tschirnhaus ( ZSMAbout ZSM)  ; 1♂ 3♀, UGANDA: Queen Elizabeth National Park, Kyambura Game Reserve, 18.vii.1994, O. Krüger (X974)  ; 2♂ 3♀ NE of Queen Elizabeth National Park , 15.vii.1994, O. Krüger (X973)  ; 1♀, Queen Elizabeth National Park, Collin's Camp, 31.viii.1994, O. Krüger, (X977); 21♂ 38♀, (2♀ with Laboulbeniales  on abdomen and 1♂ on hind tarsus) TANZANIA: Marangu , 22.ii.1971, M.v. Tschirnhaus, (X362)  ; 7♂ 11♀, (1♂ with Laboulbeniales  on hind tarsus) same data (X361)  ; 1♂ 1♀, Kilimanjaro, above Marangu , 6400–7000 ft., 4.iii.1971, M.v. Tschirnhaus, (X375)  ; 2♂ 2♀, Kilimanjaro, 6700–7000 ft. 27.ii.1971, M. v. Tschirnhaus, (X363); (all in ZSMAbout ZSM)  ; 1♀, ZAMBIA: Lusaka, 20.v.1994, J.N. Pollock ( NMWCAbout NMWC)  ; 3♂ 10♀, ZIMBABWE: 10km SE of Harare, 19.ii.1997, J.W. Ismay  ; 1♀, Harare, Nat. Botanic Gdns. , 14.ii.1997, J.W. Ismay  ; 1♂, Mazowe , grasses, 16.ii.1997, J.W. Ismay (all in OUMAbout OUM)  ; 1♀, ANGOLA: 12 mls. S.W. of Luimbale , c. 5500 ft., 20–21.iii.1972, BMSAE  ; 1♀, SOUTH AFRICA: Durban, 1902, F. Muir  ; 19♂ 18♀, Pirie Dam , ii.1944, J. Omer Cooper (all in NHMUKAbout NHMUK)  ; 1♀, Natal, 10km N.E. of Drummond , 18.ix.1983, A. Freidberg  ; 1♀, Natal, 25km W. of Winterton , 16.ix.1983, A. Freidberg (all in NMWCAbout NMWC). There is a striking difference in the ground colour of the thorax, abdomen and, to a lesser extent, the legs of the above material, that from Ethiopia and the Mt  . Kenya specimen being considerably darker, appearing blackish brown, whereas those from elsewhere are ferruginous, the South African (Pirie Dam) material, which is mature, being especially pale. 

In addition to the above-listed material 2♂ 4♀ collected with the typical material by Dr. Ismay at 10km S. of Harare appear to be a different species, being slightly smaller, having the frons less projecting and consequently the frontal triangle shorter and with straighter sides, the hind margin of the surstylus less concave (forming a concavity of one quarter of a circle in typical form) and the angle between gena and occiput lightly dusted (shining in typical form). However, amongst Dr. von Tschirnhaus' material are specimens which are morphologically intermediate between the typical form and that from Harare, having the frontal triangle variable in shape and the dusting of the genal/occipital angle dusted. These specimens lead me to consider that all should, for the time being at any rate, be regarded as representing the same species. Within the Chloropinae  characters of male terminalia are often misleading, and the unfortunate result of workers figuring the same structure from a slightly different angle can lead to confusion.

This morphologically intermediate material is: 3♂ 2♀, TANZANIA: foot of Mt. Kilimanjaro, Marangu, 4.iii.1971, (X376)  ; 1♂ 1♀, Kilimanjaro, above Marangu, 4.iii.1971 (X375)  ; 1♂, KENYA: 15km NNE of Nanyuki, Kamwaki Farm , 9.iii.1970, (X345)  ; 2♀, western face of Mt. Kenya, E. of Naro Moru, 12.iii.1970, (X328)  ; 1♂, Chyulu Range, SW of Kibwesi, 18.ii.1971, (X348); 2♀, mountain ridge 7.5km WNW of Ol Kalou , 25.iii.1970, (X342) (all in ZSMAbout ZSM). 

A dissected female from Mulu was found to contain a well developed larva with shell membrane still attached.

Puparium 3.75mm in length, 0.96mm in greatest breadth, tubular, smooth surfaced and yellowish brown in colour; mandibular sclerite ( Plate 5View PLATE 5, Fig. 22); anterior spiracles similar to those described here for P. pellucidus  , transversely orientated and situated on lateral edges of dorsal emergence cap; posterior spiracles small, uncoloured and not raised above puparial integument, those figured here ( Plate 4View PLATE 4, Fig. 19) showing the right hand spiracle to have 3 large respiratory pores, whereas the left hand one has the appearance of the development of a further pore.

NHMUK

Natural History Museum, London

NMWC

National Museum of Wales

MNHN

Museum National d'Histoire Naturelle

ZSM

Bavarian State Collection of Zoology

OUM

Oxford University Museum of Natural History

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Arthropoda

Class

Insecta

Order

Diptera

Family

Chloropidae

Genus

Pachylophus

Loc

Pachylophus femoratus ( Johnson, 1898 )

Deeming, John C. 2018

2018
Loc

Elachiptera femorata

Johnson, 1898 : 164

Loc

Pachylophus tellinii

Bezzi, 1908 : 177

Loc

Pachylophus frontellinus

Speiser, 1910 : 196

Loc

Pachylophus cymbiformis

Becker, 1916 : 426