Clinohelea Kieffer

Borkent, Art, 2014, The Pupae of the Biting Midges of the World (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), With a Generic Key and Analysis of the Phylogenetic Relationships Between Genera, Zootaxa 3879 (1), pp. 1-327 : 75-76

publication ID 10.11646/zootaxa.3879.1.1

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Clinohelea Kieffer


Clinohelea Kieffer View in CoL View at ENA

( Figs. 13F View FIGURE 13 , 16C View FIGURE 16 , 20M–N View FIGURE 20 , 26B View FIGURE 26 , 30G View FIGURE 30 , 33B View FIGURE 33 , 37D View FIGURE 37 , 45A–B View FIGURE 45 , 50D View FIGURE 50 , 63B View FIGURE 63 , 75C View FIGURE 75 )

DIAGNOSIS: Only pupa of Ceratopogonidae with the metathorax with only two campaniform sensilla (M-2-T, M-3-T) on the anterior margin of the metathorax, D-7-I situated anteriorly, about 1/2 way between D-5-I and D-2-I ( Fig. 50D View FIGURE 50 , but see taxonomic discussion) and the dorsal apotome relatively narrow ( Figs. 20 View FIGURE 20 M-N; compared to Fig. 20O View FIGURE 20 ).

DESCRIPTION: Total length = 2.59–4.47 mm. Without larval exuviae retained on abdomen. Exuviae with flagellum appressed against lateral margin of midleg, wing ( Figs. 16C View FIGURE 16 , 33B View FIGURE 33 ). Ecdysial tear around base of antenna tear posterolaterally ( Figs. 16C View FIGURE 16 , 79E View FIGURE 79 ); along prothoracic extension. Head: Dorsal apotome ( Figs. 20M–N View FIGURE 20 ), without ventral line of weakness, without dorsomedial tubercle, without central dome; dorsolateral cephalic sclerite ( Fig. 13F View FIGURE 13 ) fused to scutum, each side separated medially by dorsal apotome in whole pupa; mouthparts ( Fig. 26B View FIGURE 26 ) with mandible well-developed, lacinia absent; palpus extending posterior to posterolateral margin of labium; labium separated medially by labrum, hypopharynx; apex of antenna ( Fig. 37D View FIGURE 37 ) posterior to posterior extent of midlength portion of midleg (portion lateral to mesosternum), narrowed posteriorly; sensilla: dorsal apotomals ( Figs. 20M–N View FIGURE 20 )—1 elongate seta, 1 campaniform sensillum; dorsolateral cephalic sclerite sensilla—1 seta, 1 campaniform sensillum; clypeal-labrals ( Fig. 26B View FIGURE 26 )—2 slender setae; oculars ( Fig. 26B View FIGURE 26 )—2 elongate setae. Thorax: Prothoracic extension ( Fig. 26B View FIGURE 26 ) wide, well-developed, extending from palpus to antenna; mesonotum with short tubercles, not extending posteromedially, with or without slight protuberance, not dividing metathorax medially ( Fig. 50D View FIGURE 50 ); respiratory organ ( Figs. 45A–B View FIGURE 45 ) length/width = 3.59–7.65, elongate, slender, gradually somewhat flattened dorsoventrally, with pores closely abutting or slightly separated at apex of respiratory organ, arranged in single row, outer surface smooth, with moderately elongate pedicel, base with elongate posteromedial apodeme, membranous base of respiratory organ moderately elongate, plain or partly annulated, tracheal tube straight to slightly curved along length, with spirals restricted to base, remainder with wrinkles; wing ( Fig. 37D View FIGURE 37 ) without apical tubercle or angle, separated medially by fore-, midlegs; halter apex and hind leg ( Fig. 33B View FIGURE 33 ) broadly abutting; halter apex abutting anterolateral knob-like extension of tergite 2; legs ( Fig. 37D View FIGURE 37 ) with lateral margin of foreleg near midlength of wing evenly curved; hind leg visible at lateral margin of wing ( Fig. 33B View FIGURE 33 ); with apex of foreleg slightly to moderately anterior to apex of midleg; apex of hind leg abutting apex of midleg laterally, small ventral lobe; sensilla: anteromedials—1 elongate or 2 short setae; anterolaterals—1 short seta; dorsal setae ( Fig. 30G View FIGURE 30 )—D- 1-T, D-2-T, D-5-T peg-like, D-4-T seta, D-3-T campaniform sensillum; D-1-T, D-2-T on single tubercle, D-3-T lateral to slightly posterolateral to D-4-T; supraalar 2—campaniform sensillum; metathoracics ( Fig. 50D View FIGURE 50 )—2 campaniform sensilla; M-3-T near anterior margin of metathorax. Abdomen: pigmentation very light brown or just indicated by bare patches, tergite 1 with 3 medial spots, tergites 2–7 with medial area with stripe, 2 anterolateral spots, sternites not pigmented or sternites 3–7 with bare median patch; anterolateral areas not evident, segment 2 as wide or slightly wider than segment 3, segments with undivided, peg-like or thin to thick setae, with rounded to pointed or bifid, short to moderately elongate tubercles, tergites or sternites entire, each without membranous disc; segment 9 ( Fig. 75C View FIGURE 75 ) not strongly modified, terminal processes separated basally, each projecting posterodorsolaterally, tapering to pointed apex; sensilla: tergite 1 ( Fig. 50D View FIGURE 50 ) with 7–8 setae, 2 campaniform sensilla, including 3 lateral sensilla, D-2-I, D-3-I closely approximated, D-7-I situated anteriorly near D-3-I; segment 4 ( Fig. 63B View FIGURE 63 )—D-2-IV peg-like seta, D-3-IV seta, D-2-IV on bifid tubercle, D-3-IV on short tubercle; D-5- IV peg-like seta, D-8-IV, D-9-IV short setae; D-5-IV on single tubercle, D-8-IV, D-9-IV on single bifid tubercle or separate but closely approximated, posterior dorsal sensilla in transverse row, arranged medially to laterally: D-5- IV, D-4-IV, D-8-IV, D-9-IV; D-7-IV near D-3-IV; L-1-IV short seta on pointed tubercle, well anterior of posterior lateral setae; L-2-IV, L-3-IV, L-4-IV short setae on elongate tubercles, V-5-IV, V-6-IV, V-7-IV short setae on bifid tubercles, all closely approximated; segment 8 without D-3-VIII, without L-1-VIII; segment 9 ( Fig. 75C View FIGURE 75 )—with D- 5-IX, D-6-IX campaniform sensilla.

DISTRIBUTION AND HABITAT: The genus Clinohelea is known from 40 species from every Region worldwide ( Borkent 2014 ). Immatures are known from the margins of streams, fens, seepage area into a lake, muddy margins of rice paddies, and rock pools ( de Meillon & Wirth 1991, Knausenberger 1987).

TAXONOMIC DISCUSSION: There are seven species of Clinohelea known as pupae ( Tables 2–3 View TABLE 2 View TABLE 3 ). Spinelli & Duret (1993) included the differences between the two Neotropical species known in their key to the adults. Elson-Harris & Kettle (1986) keyed the two known Australian species.

Wirth & Grogan (1979) illustrated the dorsal apotome of C. bimaculata with an excavated dorsal margin but reexamination of this species indicates that this was likely based on a damaged or misdrawn specimen. Elson-Harris & Kettle (1986) illustrated abdominal segment 4 of C. dryas with D-7-IV in a posterior position, which would be unique within a broader group, including the Heteromyiini + Sphaeromiini s. lat. + Palpomyiini + Stenoxenini (see character 63); the species should be reexamined. They likely overlooked both D-4-IV and D-7-IV in their illustrations of C. tasmaniensis .

Elson-Harris (1990) used the enlarged base upon which DA-1-H is situated (on the dorsal apotome) to distinguish Australian Heteromyiini . Within this region (and elsewhere), the feature does not characterize Pellucidomyia and therefore is not inclusive. The base is large and swollen in Clinohelea ( Figs. 20M–N View FIGURE 20 ) but I could not consistently use this feature to distinguish this genus from some Sphaeromiini s. lat. (e.g. Fig. 21D, F View FIGURE 21 ). The strongly tapering dorsal portion of the dorsal apotome of Clinohelea pointed out by Elson-Harris (1990) is distinctive within the Heteromyiini + Sphaeromiini s. lat. + Palpomyiini + Stenoxenini .

MATERIAL EXAMINED: C. bimaculata : 1 pupal exuviae, Spruce Knob Lane, Randolph County, Virginia, USA, 21-VII-1976 (VPIC). C. curriei : 2 pupal exuviae, 1 pupal exuviae (in glycerin), 6 km E of Salmon Arm, BC, Canada, 6-VI-1990 (CNCI). C. horacioi : 2 pupal exuviae, Pipeline Road, Gamboa, Canal Zone, Panama, VII-1967 (MLPA). C. nigripes : 1 pupal exuviae, Pipeline Road, Gamboa, Canal Zone, Panama, VII-1967 (MPLA). C. unimaculata : 2 pupal exuviae, Severskii Donets River, Donetsk Province, Ukraine, 2-IV-1970 (ZIN).











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