Paragryllus (Paragryllus) lyrae Cadena-Castañeda, 2021

Cadena-Castañeda, Oscar J., Páez, Geraldine, Buitrago, Oscar, Quintana-Arias, Ronald Fernando & Tavares, Gustavo Costa, 2021, Studies of Neotropical crickets: New Paragryllina taxa (Orthoptera: Phalangopsidae) with comments on several previously described species, Zootaxa 5081 (1), pp. 60-76 : 64-65

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Paragryllus (Paragryllus) lyrae Cadena-Castañeda

n. sp.

Paragryllus (Paragryllus) lyrae Cadena-Castañeda n. sp. Orthoptera

( Figures 4–5 View FIGURE 4 View FIGURE 5 )

Etymology. Dedicated to the memory of Carmen Lyra, pseudonym of María Isabel Carvajal Quesada (1887–1949), in recognition of her valuable contributions to Costa Rican education and literature, as well as the defense of her political cause. A historical, heroic, and fighter woman.

Type material. Holotype. Male. Costa Rica, Puntarenas, District of Golfito, Guaycará, La Gamba Biological Station . 8°42’2.49”N, 83°12’7.79”W. 80 m. April 2018. F. Etl. ( CAUD). GoogleMaps

Description. In addition to characters to the genus and subgenus. Male. Mid-sized. Body predominantly ocher brown with dark brown and yellow stripe ( Figs 4A–C View FIGURE 4 ). Head ochre with almost grey-brown spots and stripes; antennal scape partly light, and dark brown antennal flagellum having sparse, small, and almost indistinct lightish spots ( Fig. 4B View FIGURE 4 ). Pronotum mostly brown, pronotal disc ochre, posterior margin of pronotal disc outlined in yellow. Fore and middle femora brown spotted; hind femora ochre with numerous brownish oblique lines on the outer surface and several spots on inner surface and apex, tarsi almost dark brown. Tegmina with lateral and anterior part ochregrey, not dark; veins of lateral field gold; hind wings greyish ( Fig. 4C View FIGURE 4 ). Abdomen and terminalia dark brown. Head almost as wide as high in frontal view; maxillary palpi mid-sized, third and fourth subequal and cylindrical, the fifth flattened, slightly dilated from the base to the apex. Pronotum rather short, wider than long, anterior margin slightly concave, posterior margin straight ( Fig. 4C View FIGURE 4 ). Legs. Fore tibia with tympana small and ovoid, on both sides, and armed at the apex with a small spur on each side; mid tibia armed with two mid-sized spurs at the apex on each side. Hind tibia dorsally with three apical spurs on both sides, the mid spur of outer margin is longer than the modified spur on the inner side. Tegmina with oval and transverse mirror, wider than long, with six dividing veins; harp with eight dividing veins; apical area moderately pronounced ( Fig. 4C View FIGURE 4 ); stridulation file with 178 teeth ( Fig. 4E View FIGURE 4 ).

Abdomen. Epiproctus with long paired processes, 2.5 times longer than epiproctus, digitiform, and dorsoventrally flattened. Subgenital plate rectangular, longer than wide, and distally with a mid and small notch. Male genitalia. Pseudepiphallic sclerite with bristles on median lobes ( Fig. 5 View FIGURE 5 ); lateral lobe conical, with apex rounded, and slightly curved downward ( Figs 5A, D View FIGURE 5 ). Pseudepiphallic paramere is divided into two branches, slim and thin ventral branch with a sharp ventrolateral prolongation before the apex; dorsal branch lanceolate with a ventral and small prolongation at the mid of its length in lateral view ( Fig. 5D View FIGURE 5 ). In dorsal view, arc with a mid-U-shaped notch ( Fig. 5A View FIGURE 5 ). Ectophallic fold cylindrical, with rounded apex, moderately long, prolonged to median lobe level ( Figs. 5A–B View FIGURE 5 ). Endophallic sclerite flattened, and divergent ( Fig. 5B View FIGURE 5 ). Rami as a lateral plate curved inward on ventral and dorsal margin ( Fig. 5D View FIGURE 5 ). Ectophallic apodeme mostly membranous, longer than rami, and with the same thickness from the base to the apex ( Figs 5A, B, D View FIGURE 5 ).

Female. Unknown.

Measurements (in mm). Holotype: LB: 24. Pr: 4.2. Teg: 18.5. HF: 17. HT: 18.

Comparison. P. (P.) lyrae n. sp. is the second species of the genus reported for Costa Rica (south of the country, near the Pacific coast), the first species was P. (P.) eclogos (south of the country, near the Atlantic coast). The new species is closer to P. (P.) eclogos , but this differs from the new species because, according to its original description, it only has a small inner and no outer tympanum. Also, the ectophallic fold is short, slightly apparent in the middle of the pseudepiphallic sclerite in dorsal view; on the other hand, the branches of the pseudepiphallic paramere do not have the additional and pointed ventral prolongations, which are present in the new species. P. (P.) lyrae n. sp., is smaller (24 mm) and with fewer teeth in the stridulatory file (178 teeth) vs P. (P.) eclogos 25 mm length and 299 teeth.