Pyrrhulina capim, Vieira & Netto-Ferreira, 2019

Vieira, Lorena S. & Netto-Ferreira, André L., 2019, New species of Pyrrhulina (Teleostei: Characiformes: Lebiasinidae) from the eastern Amazon, Pará, Brazil, Neotropical Ichthyology 17 (2), pp. 1-8: 2-7

publication ID

http://doi.org/ 10.1590/1982-0224-20190013

persistent identifier

http://treatment.plazi.org/id/014787FB-266A-FFF7-FEC8-8F57FD80FE53

treatment provided by

Carolina

scientific name

Pyrrhulina capim
status

new species

Pyrrhulina capim   , new species

urn:lsid:zoobank.org:act:AB42697F-33FD-43BD-886B-FD520ECFEC59

Fig. 1 View Fig , Tab. 1 View Tab

Pyrrhulina brevis   (non-Steindachner). — Montag et al., 2008: 18 [checklist]; 28-30 [examined material: MPEG 10442, MPEG 10479, MPEG 11692]. — Silva-Oliveira et al., 2016: 125-142 [species list: inferred from known distribution]. — Ferreira et al., 2018: 553-557 [ecological study: inferred from known distribution].

Pyrrhulina filamentosa   (non-Cuvier & Valenciennes). — Montag et al., 2009: 245 [checklist]; 251 [examined material: MPEG 7627].

Pyrrhulina   sp. — Montag et al., 2008: 30 [checklist, examined material: MPEG 10425]. — Raiol et al., 2012: 495 [checklist]; 498 [examined material: MPEG 10570].

Holotype. UFRGS 27300 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 54.4 mm SL, Brazil, Pará, Bragança, rio São José , 01°07’47”S 46°49’13”W, 05 Feb 2012, J. C. O. Santana et al. GoogleMaps  

Paratypes. All from Brazil, from the basins of the rio Guamá, rio Capim : MPEG 4959 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 42.9 mm SL, Paragominas, igarapé Paraquequara, rio Guamá basin, 12 Jan 1992, M. Torres, J. Júnior   ; MPEG 6930 View Materials , 3 View Materials , 31.5-43.3 mm SL, Paragominas, igarapé Paraquequara 03°16’05”S 47°46’05”W, 16 Apr 2003, A. B. Sousa, V. S. E. Sena GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 7385 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 21.2 mm SL, Paragominas, igarapé Paraquequara , 03°14’50”S 47°45’40”W, 17 Dec 2003, A. B. Sousa, V. S. E. Sena GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 7438 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 28.7 mm SL, Paragominas, igarapé Cachoeirinha , 18 Dec 2002, A. B. Sousa, V. S. E. Sena   ; MPEG 7500 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 47.9 mm SL, Paragominas, igarapé Paraquequara , 03°16’40”S 47°43’53”W GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 7502 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 28.7 mm SL, Paragominas, igarapé Potiritá , 03°12’13”S 47°39’52”W, 16 Dec 2002, A. B. Sousa, V. S. E. Sena GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 9414 View Materials , 6 View Materials , 14.7-29.6 mm SL, Barcarena, rio Arienga , 01°38’0”S 48°43’00”W, 26 Mar 2002 A. B. Sousa, V. S. E. Sena GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 9417 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 28.0- 33.9 mm SL, Paragominas, igarapé Paraquequara , 03°15’18”S 47° 45’13”W, 14 Dec 2002, A. B. Sousa GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 9424 View Materials , 36 View Materials , 12.6-41.9 mm SL, Paragominas, igarapé Paraquequara , 03°16’40”S 47°43’53”W, 14 Dec 2002, V. S. E. Sena GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 9427 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 47.2-47.6 mm SL, Paragominas, Guamá-Capim system, rio Cachoeirinha , 03°12’42”S 47°45’36”W, 12 Apr 2003, A. B. Sousa GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 9555 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 19.3 mm SL, Tomé-Açu , 02°25’11”S 48°12’13”W, 1 Jul 2005, A. B. Sousa GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 9560 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 16.7 mm CP   ; MPEG 9567 View Materials , 4 View Materials , 26.0- 42.4 mm SL, Paragominas, igarapé Candiru , 02°51’51”S 47°30’50”W, 28 Jun 2005, L. F. A. Montag GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 9571 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 21.9-23.2 mm SL, Concórdia do Pará, igarapé Cajueiro , 02°03’06”S 47°53’09”W, 5 Sep 2005, A. B. Sousa, D. G. Oliveira GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 9574 View Materials , 4 View Materials , 15.3- 22.8 mm SL, Tomé-Açu, igarapé Timboteua , 02°51’59”S 48°14’38”W, 29 Jun 2005, A. B. Sousa et al. GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 9575 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 32.5 mm SL, Tomé-Açu, igarapé Marupaúba , 02°13’19”S 48°08’14”W, 1 Jul 2005, A. B. Sousa, D. G. Oliveira GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 9585 View Materials , 12 View Materials , 39.6-49.7 mm SL; 2 c&s, 43.3-49.8 mm SL, Tomé-Açu, igarapé Anuerazinho , 02°32’39”S 48°16’10”W, 30 Jun 2005, A. B. Sousa GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 10570 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 37.2-41.5 mm SL, Benevides, igarapé do Gelo , 01°21’41”S 48°14’41”W, 6 May 2006, M. B. Mendonça GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 12128 View Materials , 5 View Materials , 16.7-26.9 mm SL, Benevides, igarapé Taiassuí , 20 Mar 2006, L. F. A. Montag   ; MPEG 16188 View Materials , 23 View Materials , 12.4-32.8 mm SL, Barcarena, rio Tauá , 01°36’00”S 48°43’00”W, 21 Nov 2001, W. B. Wosiacki GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 18274 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 45.0 mm SL, Ourém , igarapé da Loura, 01°32’37”S 47°05’54”W, 16 Nov 2009, B. F. Pamplona GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 21405 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 44.6 mm SL, Mãe do Rio , igarapé da Bicheira, 02°03’31”S 47°25’51”W, 24 Oct 2010, P. Gerhard GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 23516 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 26.0mm SL, Paragominas , 03°15’12”S 47°47’02”W, 8 Feb 2012, Alberto Akama GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 29265 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 42.9-56.5 mm SL, Barcarena , Arienga I, 01°36’54”S 48°44’03”W, 18 Dec 2015, E. Reis, J, Vilar GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 32950 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 24.8-33.5 mm SL, Barcarena, Tauá III, 01°35’44”S 48°43’13”W, 17 Dec 2015, E. Reis, J, Vilar. All from Brazil, Coastal drainages of the Amazon Estuary Pará, Bragança GoogleMaps   : UFRGS 25559 View Materials , 13 View Materials , 39.6-58 mm SL; 5 c&s, 44.2-53.3 mm SL, same data as holotype GoogleMaps   ; UFRGS 25560 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 54.2 mm SL, Capitão Poço, fazenda Cachoeira , 01°38’59”S 47°06’ 03”W, 02 Feb 2012, J. C. O. Santana et al. GoogleMaps   ; UFRGS 25562 View Materials , 3 View Materials , 43.8-55.9 mm SL, Bragança, near the Colônia Prati , 01°05’57”S 46°48’45”W, 04 Feb 2012, J. C. O. Santana et al. GoogleMaps   ; UFRGS 25563 View Materials , 9 View Materials , 21.2-55.7 mm SL, Ourém, igarapé Tororomba , 01°34’14”S 47°02’27”W, 05 Feb 2012, J. C. O. Santana et al. GoogleMaps   ; UFRGS 25933 View Materials , 3 View Materials , 38.5-50.1 mm SL; 5 c&s, 38.0- 41.4 mm SL, Bragança , sítio JW, 01°04’42”S 46°44’21”W, 20 Nov 2015, J. Ready GoogleMaps   .

Non-type material. All from Brazil, Pará: MZUSP 23816, 51, 1 c&s, 37.3 mm SL, Paragominas, rio Capim, igarapé Caranaudina, 06 Ago 1970, Expedição Permanente à Amazônia. Coastal drainages:   MPEG 8224 View Materials , 9 View Materials , 12.2-19.2 mm SL, Bragança , 19 Apr 2005, R. Silva   ; MPEG 8371 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 41.8 mm SL, Bragança , Rio Galego, 1 Feb 2005, R. Silva   ; MPEG 8387 View Materials , 4 View Materials , 50.2 mm SL, Bragança , 1 Dec 2005, Kelle   ; MPEG 18294 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 40.1 View Materials mmSL, Ourém , igarapéFurodoNovo, 01°34’19”S 47°09’42”W, 17 Nov 2009, B. F. Pamplona GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 21406 View Materials , 10 View Materials , 27.8-57.6 mm SL, Marapanim , igarapé Braço Grande de Timboteua, 01°02’24”S 47°37’21”W, 23 Jul 2010, P. Gerhard GoogleMaps   ; UFRGS 25561 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 42.7 mm SL, Tracuateua , igarapé do Meio, vila Mirasselvas, 01°05’56”S 46°57’41”W, 07 Feb 2012, J. C. O. Santana et al. Lower rio Xingu , rio Quiã-paranã and rio Anapu GoogleMaps   : LIA 2233 View Materials , 11 View Materials , 17.9- 38.3 mm SL, Vitória do Xingu , 03°19’31”S 51°52’18”W, 26 Jul 2014, D. Bastos, A. Martins GoogleMaps   ; LIA 2304 View Materials , 2 View Materials , 39.5-46.4 mm SL, Vitória do Xingu , 03°05’10”S 52°00’36”W, 16 Jul 2014, D. Bastos, A. Martins GoogleMaps   ; LIA 5004 View Materials , 3 View Materials , 36.5-47.2 mm SL, rio Xingu , igarapé, 03°05’10”S 52°00’36”W, 15 Jul 2015, R. Oliveira GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 7627 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 43.5 mm SL, Ponta de Pedras , rio Quiã-paranã, 01°22’09”S 48°55’24”W, 18 Dec 2003, A. B. Sousa, V. S. E. Sena GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 10425 View Materials , 3 View Materials , 32 View Materials , 55 View Materials mm SL, Melgaço , Flona de Caxiuanã, 4 Nov 2004, L. F. A. Montag   ; MPEG 10442 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 30.3 mm SL, Melgaço , Flona de Caxiuanã, 01°45”S 51°24”W, 1 Dec 2004, L. F. A. Montag   ; MPEG 10479 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 32.1 mm SL, Melgaço , Flona de Caxiuanã, 01°45’44”S 51°23’55”W, 29 Nov 2004, L. F. A. Montag GoogleMaps   ; MPEG 11692 View Materials , 1 View Materials , 30.1 mm SL, Melgaço , Flona de Caxiuanã, 19 Nov 2003, L. F. A. Montag   .

Diagnosis. Pyrrhulina capim   differs from all congeners except P. australis Eigenmann, Kennedy   ( Fig. 2a View Fig ), P. brevis Steindachner   ( Fig. 2b View Fig ), P. elongata Zarske, Géry   ( Fig. 2c View Fig ), and P. filamentosa Valenciennes   ( Fig. 2d View Fig ) by having the primary stripe restricted to the head (vs. primary stripe extending beyond head, reaching the anterior portion of the body but not the vertical through pectoralfin tip in P. eleanorae Fowler   ( Fig. 2e View Fig ), P. laeta Cope   , P. lugubris Eigenmann   , P. obermulleri Myers   ( Fig. 2f View Fig ), P. stoli Boeseman   ( Fig. 2g View Fig ), P. spilota Weitzman   ( Fig. 2h View Fig ), and P. vittata Regan   ; reaching at least the vertical through the pelvic-fin origin, but not reaching the vertical through the anal-fin terminus in P. semifasciata Steindachner   ( Fig. 2i View Fig ) and P. maxima Eigenmann, Eigenmann   ( Fig. 2j View Fig ); or reaching the caudal-fin in P. beni Pearson   , P. marilynae Netto-Ferreira   , and P. zigzag Zarske, Géry   ( Fig. 2k View Fig )). Pyrrhulina capim   differs from P. australis   , P. brevis   , P. elongata   and P. filamentosa   in that the primary stripe reaches the distal edge of the opercle (vs. stripe restricted to snout and sometimes across eye, but always lacking a conspicuous dark postorbital portion). The new species is further distinguished from P. brevis   by the number of premaxillary teeth (outer series: 15-20 vs. 25-27; inner series: 24-31 vs. 38-41), and dentary teeth (outer series: 13-20 vs. 22-26; inner series: 32-45 vs. 50-54). Pyrrhulina capim   further differs from P. australis   by having 10 principal rays on the upper caudal-fin lobe (vs. 9 rays); from P. filamentosa   by possessing fewer scales along the lateral line series (22-25 vs. 25-30); and from P. elongata   by having 10-12 scales in the first longitudinal paired series, with that series reaching posterior to the pelvic-fin origin (vs. no more than 6 scales in that series, with that series falling far short of the vertical through the pelvic-fin origin).

Description. Morphometric data of the holotype and 60 paratypes presented in Tab. 1 View Tab . Lateral view of male holotype and female paratype in Fig. 1a View Fig and Fig. 1b View Fig , respectively. Body cylindrical, slightly elongate. Greatest body depth anterior to dorsal-fin origin, between pectoral and pelvic fins. Dorsal profile of head straight, slightly concave from upper lip to anterior scales covering parietal and supraoccipital. Dorsal profile of body slightly convex or nearly straight from that point to dorsal-fin origin; gently concave along dorsal-fin base and caudal peduncle near vertical through anal-fin terminus, becoming nearly straight from that point to origin of anterodorsal procurrent ray of caudal fin. Ventral profile of head and trunk convex from lower lip to pelvicfin origin, becoming straight from that point to anal-fin origin. In male specimens, anal-fin base slightly convex, caudal peduncle straight or slightly concave from that point to origin of anteroventral procurrent ray of caudal fin. In female specimens, ventral profile of anal-fin base and caudal peduncle gently concave to origin of anteroventral procurrent ray of caudal fin.

Mouth superior. Premaxillary with two series of conical teeth; outer series with 15(3), 17(1), 18(2), 19(5) or 20(1) teeth; inner series with 24(2), 25(1), 26(3), 28(2), 30(2), or 31(2) teeth. Maxillary with 11(1), 14(1), 15(1), 16(1), 18(1) or 19(1) conical teeth in males, and 7(1), 8(1), 9(3) or 10(1) in females, anterior teeth largest in both sexes. Dentary with two series of conical teeth; outer series with 13(1), 14(2), 15(1), 16(3), 17(1), 18(2), or 20(2); inner series with 32(2), 33(1), 34(1), 35(1), 37(2), 38(1), 42(1), 43(1), 44(1) or 45(1). Inner series of teeth gradually decreasing in size from symphysis to near coronoid process. Lower jaw protruding slightly beyond premaxillary. Branchiostegal rays 3; two articulating with anterior ceratohyal and one with posterior.

Scales cycloid, circuli restricted to anterior border, few radii converging and strongly anastomosed at focus, not forming cells. Lateral line series with 22(3), 23(25), 24*(19) or 25(1) scales; none perforated. Longitudinal series of scales between dorsal and pelvic fins 5. Predorsal scales 10(1), 11(6), 12*(22), 13(21) or 14(1). First paired longitudinal series with 9(2), 10(12), 11*(23), 12(11) or 13(2) scales. Circumpeduncular scales 10*.

Pectoral-fin rays i,10(5), i,11*(18) or i,12(30). Tip of longest pectoral-fin ray falling far short of vertical through pelvic-fin origin. Pelvic-fin rays i,7*(52) or i,8(1); tip of longest pelvic-fin ray reaching anal-fin origin in adult males, but not in juveniles or females. Supraneurals 7(12), positioned anterior to neural spines of centra 7(12) to 13(12). First dorsal-fin pterygiophore inserted posterior to neural spine of centrum 12(3), 13(8) or 14(1). Dorsal-fin rays ii,6(1), iii,6(6), iii,7(2) or ii,8*(48). Distal margin of extended dorsal fin somewhat rounded in females, lanceolate in adult males. Dorsal-fin origin located distinctly closer to caudal fin than to snout tip. Base of last dorsal-fin ray located at vertical through anal-fin origin. Anal-fin rays iii,8(37) or ii,8*(16), with last ray adnate. Profile of extended anal fin rounded in females, somewhat elliptical or lanceolate in males. First anal-fin pterygiophore inserted posterior to haemal arch of centrum 19(8) or 20(4). Adipose fin absent. Caudal fin forked, upper lobe distinctly longer. Caudal-fin principal rays ii,8/7,i(1), ii,8/7,ii(8), ii,8/8,i*(26), i,9/7,ii(2), i,9/8,i(13) or ii,9/8,i(1). Dorsal caudal-fin procurrent rays 4(12). Ventral caudal-fin procurrent rays 4(5) or 5(7). Precaudal vertebrae 17(7) or 18(5); caudal vertebrae 14(3), 15(6) or 16(3).

Color in alcohol. Background color yellowish. Dorsal portion of head light brown from the upper lip to scales overlying parietal bone. Lateral surfaces of head distinctly lighter than dorsum, with dark pigmentation becoming abruptly scarce ventral to primary stripe. Primary stripe heavily pigmented and restricted to the head, pigmenting both jaws, antorbital, infraorbitals 1 and 5 and eye, and reaching posterior margin of opercle or opercular membrane. Ventral portion of head with few, scattered chromatophores. Mid-dorsal, first and second longitudinal series of scales with light brown pigmentation, becoming slightly darker at dorsal-fin base and extending to caudalpeduncle tip. Trunk pigmentation lighter ventrally to third longitudinal series of scales. Scale borders of second and third longitudinal series with discrete, dark pigmentation on edges, homogeneously pigmented near foci, not forming distinct reticulate pattern. Scales of fourth to sixth longitudinal series somewhat pale at focus, with discrete guanine deposition, forming longitudinal series of pale blotches (ranging from yellow to red in life). Abdominal region yellowish with sparse dark chromatophores from isthmus to anal-fin origin. Pectoral fin completely hyaline. Pelvic and anal fins mostly hyaline except for pigmented distal margin in males (see sexual dimorphism). Caudal fin hyaline with scarce chromatophores. Dorsal fin with round blotch at mid-distal portion covering all branched and unbranched rays and intervening membranes.

Sexual dimorphism. Adult males of Pyrrhulina capim   possess the typical sexual dimorphism of Lebiasinidae   ( Netto-Ferreira et al., 2011; Netto-Ferreira, Marinho, 2013), in which the anal-fin rays and all intervening membranes are distinctly thicker and longer than in females, ultimately resulting in broader anal fins in male specimens ( Marinho, Menezes, 2017). Male specimens possess more maxillary teeth than females (11-18 vs. 7-10, respectively). Adult males have dark pigmentation at the distal margin of the anal and pelvic fins that forms a discrete dark band. Pelvic fin of males distinctly longer than those of females. Dorsal-fin of adult males with distinctly elongate dark blotch (vs. ovoid or round blotch in females), extending throughout the median and distal portions of first and second branched rays. Caudal peduncle of adult males usually deeper than in females (12.9%-15.1% vs. 11.0%-13.8%; Fig. 3 View Fig ).

Geographical distribution. Pyrrhulina capim   is known from the Eastern Amazon, in northern Brazil from the basins of the rio Anapu, rio Capim, rio Guamá, lower rio Xingu, and coastal drainages of the Amazon estuary in the state of Pará ( Fig. 4 View Fig ).

Ecological notes. Pyrrhulina capim   inhabits the banks of rivers and streams of clear water with moderate flow, sandy substrate and submerged vegetation.

Etymology. The epithet capim   (from the indigenous language Tupi-Guarani meaning: Caá = leaf; Pií = thin, slender) alludes to the rio Capim, a tributary of the rio Guamá, where the first specimens examined by ALN-F were collected. A noun in apposition.

Conservation status. Despite all the human impacts in the known area of occurrence of Pyrrhulina capim   (i.e., deforestation, mining activities, palm tree plantations, cattle activities, among others), there is no information on whether those activities impact populations of that species. That said, P. capim   , has a relatively broad distribution in the Floresta Nacional de Caxiuanã, and possibly in other protected areas such as the Reserva Extrativista (=Resex) Gurupá-Melgaço, Resex Terra Grande-Pracuúba, and protected areas in the upper rio Guamá. Because of that broad area of occurrence (see distribution), it is likely that Pyrrhulina capim   can be classified as a species of Least Concern (LC) according to the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) categories and criteria (IUCN Standards and Petitions Subcommittee, 2017).

Remarks. Pyrrhulina capim   shares with all congeners the generic synapomorphies indicated by Netto-Ferreira (2010): the presence of two series of premaxillary teeth; the lack of postcleithrum 3; the dorsalmost, paired longitudinal series of scales not reaching posterior to the dorsal-fin origin; and the coronomeckelian bone approximately ten times shorter than Meckelian cartilage. Despite sharing a short primary stripe with P. australis   , P. brevis   , P. elongata   and P. filamentosa   , it is not currently clear whether P. capim   is more closely related to those four species than to other species of Pyrrhulina   , because no phylogenetic hypotheses for the genus exists. That said, the characters discussed by Netto-Ferreira, Marinho (2013) - (i.e., the reduction of the number of precaudal vertebrae; the presence of 9 caudal-fin principal rays on the upper lobe; the absence of postcleithrum 2; and the lack of filamentous rays on dorsal) suggest that P. australis   may share a closer relationship with other small species of Pyrrhulina   , such as P. marilynae   , P. vittata   and P. zigzag   .

Specimens of Pyrrhulina capim   have been commonly identified as Pyrrhulina brevis   in the literature ( Montag et al., 2008; 2009; Raiol et al., 2012; Silva-Oliveira et al., 2016; Ferreira et al., 2018) and in many collections. Such identifications seem to have been induced by the broad definition of the Pyrrhulina brevis   -group proposed by Géry (1977). According to that definition, the P. brevis   -group includes deep bodied species with low longitudinal scale counts (20-23), and a short primary stripe restricted to the eye or the opercle. That “diagnosis” fits not only P. brevis   , but also most stout bodied, short striped species of the genus such as P. australis   , P. brevis   , P. capim   , P. lugubris   , and P. obermulleri   . In that contribution Géry suggested the possibility that these forms instead of distinct species would represent variations within a single, widespread species “with slightly divergent characters,” contradicting his own observations in a previous study ( Géry, 1972). The subsequent descriptions of Pyrrhulina zigzag   , originally recognized among the syntypes of P. brevis ( Zarske, Géry, 1997)   and P. elongata   , a species with short primary stripe but low body depth ( Zarske, Géry, 2001) have weakened the case for a single, widespread Pyrrhulina brevis   . Similarly, the likely erroneous synonymy of P. rachoviana   with P. australis ( Zarske, Géry, 2004)   , which represents another operational group in the genus indicates substantial imprecision in Géry’s (1977) group definitions, and suggests a substantial lack of evidence for their reality. Hence, the recognition and usage of such “groups” may be misleading, and they should be abandoned until broad phylogenetic and revisionary studies are available for the genus.

Comparative material examined. In addition to the specimens listed in Netto-Ferreira et al. (2011), Netto-Ferreira (2012), Netto-Ferreira, Marinho (2013) and Netto-Ferreira et al. (2013), the following specimens were examined. Pyrrhulina australis   : MCP 10675 View Materials , 2, 22.4-39.0 mm SL;   MPEG 16997, 4 c&s, 32.1-36.6 mm SL;   MCP 37466 View Materials , 18, 15.1-56.7 mm SL;   MCP 38118 View Materials , 55, 21.0- 29.7 mm SL;   MCP 39183 View Materials , 2, 11.5-24.1 mm SL;   MCP 39240 View Materials , 2, 18.3-41.3 mm SL;   MCP 39277 View Materials , 55, 18.7-30.2 mm SL;   MCP 40882 View Materials 2, 13.0- 30.7 mm SL.   Pyrrhulina brevis   : INPA 25993, 1, 33.9 mm SL;   INPA 25999, 1, 29.0 mm SL;   INPA 26019, 5, 14.3-29.2 mm SL;   INPA 26024, 24, 15.2-68.8 mm SL;   INPA 26033, 2, 16.2-27.0 mm SL;   INPA 26040, 1, 54.3 mm SL;   INPA 26042, 19, 15.7-61.1 mm SL;   INPA 26048, 3, 22.1-42.0 mm SL;   INPA 26052, 2, 43.9-60.8 mm SL;   INPA 27819, 134, 12.1- 67.4 mm SL, 2 c&s;   INPA 31528, 18, 30.1-64.4 mm SL.   Pyrrhulina elongata   : MPEG 25182, 2, 20.5-23.6 mm SL;   MPEG 26568, 2, 23.8- 30.6 mm SL;   MPEG 26685, 1, 32.5 mm SL;   MPEG 26687, 1, 30.9 mm SL;   MPEG 27799, 6, 16.6-22.6 mm SL;   MPEG 27844, 1, 31.0 mm SL;   MPEG 28403, 4, 13.9-19.1 mm SL;   MPEG 28446, 35, 13.2- 24.3 mm SL;   MPEG 28469, 2, 25.3-29.1 mm SL;   MPEG 28482, 2, 20.9-25.8 mm SL;   MPEG 28533, 4, 17.9-23.7 mm SL;   MPEG 28590, 2, 17.4-26.0 mm SL;   MPEG 28657, 1, 17.6 mm SL;   MPEG 28685, 3, 15.6-20.5 mm SL;   MPEG 28748, 2, 21.2-23.1 mm SL.   Pyrrhulina filamentosa   : FMNH 53439, 5, 39.0- 49.9 mm SL;   MBUCV 5978, 4, 35.5-52.4 mm SL;   MHNLS 14271, 10, 42.2-50.9 mm SL;   MHNLS 14282, 10, 52.7-75.6 mm SL, 2 c&s;   USNM 66254, 5, 29.9-67.8 mm SL. Pyrrhulina laeta   : FMNH 94558, 20, 24.5-38.4 mm SL; FMNH 113654, 20, 27.4-61.2 mm SL. Pyrrhulina lugubris   : CAS 78889 View Materials , 2, 38.7-40.2 mm SL. Pyrrhulina marilynae   : ANSP 199222, 2, 26.3-26.7 mm SL.   Pyrrhulina obermulleri   : ANSP 152043, 3, 20.5-32.1 mm SL;   ANSP 167231, 3, 29.1-37.1 mm SL.   Pyrrhulina semifasciata   : MCP 37466 View Materials , 18, 16.3-55.9 mm SL.   Pyrrhulina spilota   : USNM 197523, 17, 14.9-52.7 mm SL.   Pyrrhulina stoli   : ANSP 175475, 9, 19.1-41.6 mm SL;   ANSP 176763, 40, 22.8-44.3 mm SL;   ANSP 176764, 30, 21.3- 42.1 mm SL;   ANSP 176765, 20, 24.9-46.8 mm SL;   ANSP 201969, 10, 21.6-40.6 mm SL;   FMNH 53432, 5, 44.6-64.5 mm SL;   FMNH 69736, 15, 27.0- 48.3 mm SL.   Pyrrhulina zigzag   : FMNH 94556, 20, 13.7-32.5 mm SL;   MPEG 5795, 3, 24.3-32.7 mm SL. Pyrrhulina   sp.:   ANSP 128968, 10, 28.0- 37.9 mm SL;   ANSP 128969, 5, 14.3-33.9 mm SL;   ANSP 128975, 3, 34.4-41.5 mm SL;   ANSP 135694, 15, 35.4- 46.7 mm SL;   ANSP 137624, 4, 44.9-60.1 mm SL;   ANSP 141569, 40, 17.9-40.2 mm SL;   INPA 26006, 1, 45.4 mm SL;   MCP 26213 View Materials , 2, 22.2- 29.9 mm SL;   MCP 38699 View Materials , 25, 20.4-29.2 mm SL;   MCP 38748 View Materials , 13, 22.4-31.3 mm SL;   MCP 40684 View Materials , 25, 22.1-29.4 mm SL;   MCP 40714 View Materials , 24, 15.6-25.9 mm SL;   MCP 40745 View Materials , 17, 21.2-33.5 mm SL;   MCP 40803 View Materials , 25, 27.2-33.1 mm SL;   MCP 40876 View Materials , 24, 17.6-32.4 mm SL;   MCP 40884 View Materials , 25, 15.9-23.4 mm SL;   MPEG 8216, 2, 32.0- 40.7 mm SL;   MPEG 10088, 2 c&s, 41.9-44.8 mm SL;   MPEG 12149, 3, 35.2- 48.4 mm SL;   MPEG 15330, 1, 36.6 mm SL;   MPEG 15345, 1, 36.5 mm SL;   MPEG 30581, 2, 11.0- 60.9 mm SL;   MPEG 18214, 2, 16.5- 44.8 mm SL;   USNM 261426, 10, 23.9-34.7 mm SL;   USNM 261434, 5, 23.2-33.3 mm SL. Pyrrhulina   sp1.:   MBUCV 33341, 4, 49.3-57.9 mm SL;   MBUCV 33344, 4, 42.2-49.3 mm SL, 2 c&s;   MCNG 1521, 15, 35.2-41.9 mm SL;   MBUCV 16682, 4, 39.2-47.5 mm SL, 2 c&s;   MBUCV 35223, 5, 34.0- 39.4 mm SL;   MBUCV 34995, 4, 40.2-44.8 mm SL). Pyrrhulina   sp2.:   MBUCV 18648, 4, 44.2-61.7 mm SL, 2 c&s;   MBUCV 19759, 6, 45.6-69.5 mm SL).   Pyrrhulina   sp3.: MCNG 25770, 15, 35.0- 40.2 mm SL, 1 c&s;   MCNG 27823, 5, 34.6-40.2 mm SL;   MCNG 25640, 10, 33.5-37.6 mm SL, 1 c&s.  

Tab. 1. Morphometric data of the holotype and paratypes of Pyrrhulina capim, new species. SD = Standard Deviation.

Paratypes Holotype n Males Range Mean SD Females Range Mean SD
SL 54.4 60 39.7 - 57.7 47.1   12.3 - 57.7 34.3  
Depth dorsal fin origin 24.3 53 21.5 - 29.0 24.9 1.4 21.9 - 27.7 24.5 1.4
Snout to anal fin origin 75.5 53 72.4 - 77.7 75.2 1.4 74.0 - 78.5 76.5 1.2
Snout to pelvic fin origin 49.4 53 47.1 - 53.7 50.6 1.7 47.7 - 54.5 52.1 1.4
Snout to dorsal fin origin 57.4 53 56.9 - 62.3 59.1 1.7 59.1 - 62.8 60.7 0.9
Dorsal fin origin to caudal base 44.8 53 39.9 - 45.6 42.6 1.5 39.7 - 44.2 41.7 1.1
Dorsal fin length 33.9 52 26.7 - 34.1 29.9 2.2 21.6 - 30.5 25.7 1.8
Length caudal peduncle 13.3 53 11.9 - 15.4 13.4 0.9 11.7 - 18.9 14.0 1.5
Depth caudal peduncle 13.9 52 12.9 - 16.1 14.3 0.9 11.0 - 13.8 12.8 0.6
Anal fin length 24.1 53 20.1 - 25.1 23.4 1.3 18.0 - 23.2 20.6 1.2
Anal fin base 11.9 53 10.8 - 14.0 12.3 0.7 8.3 - 13.4 10.3 1.2
Pelvic to anal fin origin 28.9 53 23.1 - 28.9 25.9 1.4 22.8 - 29.9 25.2 1.5
Pelvic fin length 25.7 53 19.4 - 27.7 23.6 2.4 17.2 - 22.5 19.9 1.2
Pectoral to pelvic fin origin 27.2 53 25.4 - 29.1 27.0 1.0 23.3 - 31.6 26.9 1.8
Pectoral fin length 22.3 53 20.7 - 24.9 22.5 1.2 17.0 - 25.8 22.6 1.7
Snout to pectoral fin origin 24.1 53 22.2 - 26.3 24.1 0.8 23.8 - 28.4 26.2 1.4
Head length 26.0 53 23.8 - 28.9 25.9 1.1 24.9 - 29.6 27.2 1.4
Horizontal eye diameter 29.4 53 28.2 - 34.0 31.3 1.7 29.1 - 39.4 33.2 2.2
Distance snout to eye 31.4 53 28.1 - 32.2 30.6 1.1 25.0 - 33.2 29.5 2.2
Interorbital distance 38.8 53 36.7 - 42.5 39.4 1.5 35.7 - 43.7 39.5 1.8
Upper jaw length 20.5 53 18.7 - 26.6 21.9 2.4 16.6 - 24.2 20.4 2.0
Lower jaw length 36.5 53 26.4 - 36.5 32.7 2.4 26.6 - 44.0 32.1 3.2
V

Royal British Columbia Museum - Herbarium

MZUSP

Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de Sao Paulo

R

Departamento de Geologia, Universidad de Chile

Kingdom

Animalia

Phylum

Chordata

Class

Actinopterygii

Order

Characiformes

Family

Lebiasinidae

Genus

Pyrrhulina

Loc

Pyrrhulina capim

Vieira, Lorena S. & Netto-Ferreira, André L. 2019
2019
Loc

Pyrrhulina filamentosa

Montag LFDA & Albuquerque AA & Freitas TMDS & Barthem RB 2009: 245
2009
Loc

Pyrrhulina

Raiol RDO & Wosiacki WB & Montag LFDA 2012: 495
Montag LFDA & Freitas TMDS & Wosiacki WB & Barthem RB 2008: 30
2008
Loc

Pyrrhulina brevis

Montag et al., 2008: 18 [checklist]; 28-30
Silva-Oliveira et al., 2016: 125-142
Ferreira et al., 2018: 553-557